Nutrition as therapy

Importance of Supplements

1.   Cod Liver Oil

2. Co-enzyme Q10

3. Cranberry

4. Echinacea

5. Evening Primrose Oil

6. Fish Oils

7. Garlic

8. Ginkgo biloba

9. Ginseng

10. Glucosamine

11. Royal Jelly

12.  St Johnís Wort

13.  Saw palmetto

14.  Starflower Oil

VITAMINS      Minerals  


Definitions - Supplements

1. Cod Liver Oil 

Supplement

Cod Liver Oil


Food Source
Cod liver.


Description/Function
Fish Liver Oils such as Cod Liver Oil are a rich source of vitamin A & D as well as containing some Omega 3 fatty acids; EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) which are necessary to help maintain supple and flexible joints, and may help maintain a healthy heart and circulation. EPA may also help to discourage the formation of blood clots and help assist the blood to flow freely around the arteries. DHA is important in infant development, particularly in prematurely born infants and is believed to be necessary to early eye and brain development (although richer sources are found in fish body oils). Cod Liver oil has traditionally been used help to maintain general well-being and healthy, mobile joints.
Intake


Intake

Not established. However, 0.2g per day is recommended in the COMA report on heart disease.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those concerned with general well-being


Side Effects/Precautions
Do not take cod liver oil supplements if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy because high amounts of vitamin A may be present. Some medical conditions including asthma, diabetes mellitus and some blood disorders, may be affected by fish oils. It is therefore wise to check with your doctor before taking a cod liver oil supplement.
 

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2. Co-enzyme Q10 


Supplement

Co-enzyme Q10


Food Source
Broccoli, brown rice and pasta, mackerel and sardines, meat, nuts, soya products, spinach and wholemeal bread.


Description/Function
Needed for the process that converts energy in food into energy that can be used by the body. Co-enzyme Q10 may also work as an antioxidant, neutralising potentially damaging free radicals.

Intake: 

Not established.


Deficiency Symptoms
None, as it is not an essential nutrient.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Busy, active people and athletes.


Side Effects/Precautions
None known.

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3. Cranberry
 
Supplement

Cranberry


Food Source
Cranberries.


Description/Function
Cranberries and cranberry juice contain substances that may help to maintain a healthy urinary tract.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those prone to urinary tract infections ie cystitis or who are prone to kidney infection.


Side Effects/Precautions
None known


 
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4. Echinacea 


Supplement

Echinacea


Food Source
Not found in foods.


Description/Function
Under investigation for its immunostimulant action.


Intake

Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those concerned with general well-being.


Side Effects/Precautions
Not to be used during pregnancy or breast-feeding. May interfere with immunosuppressive therapy.


 
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5. Evening Primrose Oil 


Supplement

Evening Primrose Oil


Food Source
Evening Primrose Oil contains gamma-linolenic acid which is also found in Borage oil.


Description/Function
Evening Primrose Oil comes from the seeds of the evening primrose. It is rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which is involved in production of prostaglandins


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Some women suffering from PMS or going through the menopause report benefits. Also, users report improved skin condition.


Side Effects/Precautions
Epileptics should check with their doctor before taking supplements containing Evening Primrose Oil.

 

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6. Fish Oils 


Supplement

Cod Liver Oil


Food Source
Cod liver.


Description/Function
Fish Liver Oils such as Cod Liver Oil are a rich source of vitamin A & D as well as containing some Omega 3 fatty acids; EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) which are necessary to help maintain supple and flexible joints, and may help maintain a healthy heart and circulation. EPA may also help to discourage the formation of blood clots and help assist the blood to flow freely around the arteries. DHA is important in infant development, particularly in prematurely born infants and is believed to be necessary to early eye and brain development (although richer sources are found in fish body oils). Cod Liver oil has traditionally been used help to maintain general well-being and healthy, mobile joints.


Intake
Not established. However, 0.2g per day is recommended in the COMA report on heart disease.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those concerned with general well-being


Side Effects/Precautions
Do not take cod liver oil supplements if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy because high amounts of vitamin A may be present. Some medical conditions including asthma, diabetes mellitus and some blood disorders, may be affected by fish oils. It is therefore wise to check with your doctor before taking a cod liver oil supplement.

 

Supplement
Fish Body Oils


Food Source
Oily fish such as mackerel, herring, pilchards, sardines, salmon and trout.


Description/Function
Rich sources of essential Omega 3 fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) & DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). EPA may help to discourage the formation of blood clots and help assist the blood to flow freely around the arteries. EPA may also help maintain a healthy heart and circulation. DHA is important in infant development, particularly in prematurely born infants. DHA is believed to be necessary to early eye and brain development as well as maintaining suppleness.


Intake
Not established, however, 0.2g per day is recommended in the COMA report on heart disease.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those concerned with cardio-vascular health.


Side Effects/Precautions
Many trials are in progress to assess if EPA/DHA can prolong gestation and increase birth weight which may help reduce the risk of premature or low birth-weight infants. Some medical conditions including asthma, diabetes mellitus, a number of blood disorders, and some medicines may be affected by fish oils. It is therefore wise to consult your GP for advice.

 

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7. Garlic
 
Supplement

Garlic


Food Source
Garlic (the bulb which comes from the plant Allium sativum).


Description/Function
Not an essential nutrient, however it is used extensively in Mediterranean countries and is believed to have cardio-protective effects.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those concerned with cardio-vascular health.


Side Effects/Precautions
None known.

 

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8. Ginkgo biloba
 
Supplement

Ginkgo biloba


Food Source
Extracted from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair) tree. Not found in foods.


Description/Function
Contains substances that may help to maintain a healthy circulation, particularly to the brain. As a result, it has been studied for its ability to help maintain mental alertness.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Elderly people (over 65s).


Side Effects/Precautions
Not to be used during pregnancy or breast-feeding.

 

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9. Ginseng
 
Supplement

Ginseng (Panax)


Food Source
Used as a flavouring agent.


Description/Function
Ginseng is extracted from the root of several different species of the Panax group of plants from the Far East and North America. Used through the ages as a tonic, ginseng helps to improve stamina and stress resistance and is often called an adaptogen which helps to adapt to prevailing situations which could be stressful.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known


Who might Benefit from supplements
People suffering stress or those requiring additional stamina.


Side Effects/Precautions
Not to be taken if taking tranquillisers or anti-depressants, or if pregnant or breast-feeding. Do not take continuously for periods longer than three months.


 
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10. Glucosamine 


Supplement

Glucosamine


Food Source
Small amounts are provided by animal and fish products.


Description/Function
Glucosamine is a substance made in the body and which occurs naturally in our joints and connective tissues. It is used to build and repair cartilage. May help to maintain healthy joints.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Demand for glucosamine in the body increases in people who are very active plus those who are concerned about the health of their joints (ie elderly people - over 65s).


Side Effects/Precautions
None known.


 
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11. Royal Jelly 


Supplement

Royal Jelly


Food Source
Not found in foods - produced by the queen bee.


Description/Function
The food from the queen bee which contains a rich mix of nutrients. Supplements are thought to assist general well-being. Royal jelly supplements should be stored in the refrigerator.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those who are lacking in energy.


Side Effects/Precautions
Not to be taken by asthma sufferers or those suffering from allergies.

 

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12. St Johnís Wort
 
Supplement

St Johnís Wort


Food Source
Not found in foods - herbal sources only.


Description/Function
Is used by soma as an anti-depressant.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Those with mild depression.


Side Effects/Precautions
Not to be used during pregnancy or breast-feeding or when being treated with therapeutic ultraviolet light. Anyone taking prescription medicines should consult their GP or pharmacist before taking St John's Wort


 
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13. Saw palmetto 


Supplement

Saw palmetto


Food Source
Not found in foods - herbal sources only

.
Description/Function
Is used by some as a diuretic/urinary tract antiseptic.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known


Who might Benefit from supplements
Men wishing to maintain a healthy prostate. Men and women with mild urinary tract infections.


Side Effects/Precautions
Not to be taken if pregnant or breast-feeding. May affect oral contraceptives and HRT.

 

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14. Starflower Oil 


Supplement

Starflower Oil (Borage Oil)


Food Source
The seeds of the Borago officinalis plant


Description/Function
Starflower Oil comes from the seeds of the plant. It is rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which is involved in production of prostaglandins.


Intake
Not established. There is insufficient evidence to make any specific recommendations about consumption.


Deficiency Symptoms
None known.


Who might Benefit from supplements
Some women suffering from PMS or going through the menopause report benefits.


Side Effects/Precautions
Epileptics should check with their doctor before taking supplements containing Starflower Oil.



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VITAMINS      Minerals  

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